Część artykułu pochodzi z z trzeciego modułu (Digestion, absorption + macronutrients) kursu e-learningowego 'English for Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition'.
Czarnym kolorem oznaczono: useful words and expresions, niebieskim kolorem oznaczono: useful words with prepositions, zielonym kolorem oznaczono: useful collocations.
Carbohydrates constitute the most significant source of energy in diet, 55-65% of daily energy intake. They can be divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides - glucose, fructose and galactose - they are composed of one molecule of carbohydrate. Glucose is present in fruits and vegetables and is often industrially produced from starch. Fructose, can be found in honey, fruit, vegetables and is also manufactured from corn syrup for the food industry. Galactose is obtained from milk sugar, and vegetable gums.
Disaccharide is formed from 2 particles of carbohydrates, e.g. sucrose is constructed of single molecules of fructose and glucose. Lactose - is created from glucose and galactose molecules, whereas maltose is formed from 2 molecules of glucose.
Oligosaccharides, combining 3 - 11 molecules of galactose, glucose and fructose, are: raffinose, stachyose and verbascose. They can be found in legumes and seeds. Humans do not produce the enzyme needed to digest oligosaccharides, but they may be fermented in the colon. Some of them - fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are considered prebiotics, as they stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon.
As regards polysaccharides - which are composed of more than 11 molecules of monosaccharides - these can be devided into starch polysaccharides and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, or fiber). Starch is the main form of storing polysaccharide in plant cells and occurs in large quantities in cereal grains, potatoes and plantains. Starch consists of two glucose polysaccharides - amylase and amylopectin.
Depending on the rate of degradation of the linkages between those molecules, we can classify starches in three classes:
- rapidly digestible starch (RDS, with large glycaemic response, found in starchy cereals, cooked potatoes)
- slowly digestible starch (SDS, small glycaemic response, occurring in muesli, oats, pasta, legumes)
- resistant starch (RS, from unripe bananas, whole grains, raw starch) which passess as indigested into the colon where it can be fermented by bacteria.
"Non-starch polysaccharides" (NSP) is a term which may be used instead of “fiber”. Dietary fiber defined so, does not include lignin or resistant starch. Fiber can be classified as soluble or insoluble. Soluble fiber (e.g. from apples, barley, legumes, oats, pears, strawberries, citrus fruits, etc.) decreases the blood glucose response to ingestion. It binds water and slows down the reabsorption of bile acids, which results from a lower rate of cholesterol absorption, and reduces blood cholesterol levels. Insoluble fiber (from legumes, fruits with edible seeds, maize, oats, bran, brown rice, wholemeal products) mostly consists of cellulose and some hemicelluloses. It swells in the colon and thus stimulates the peristalsis, prolongs the transit time and reduces the risk of constipation. Daily recommended intake of NSP is 20-40 g.
|carbohydrates - węglowodany||growth - wzrost|
|constitute - stanowić, tworzyć||non-starch - nieskrobiowe|
|monosaccharides - monosacharydy||amylase - amylaza|
|disaccharides - dwucukry||amylopectin - amylopektyna|
|polysaccharides - polisacharydy||linkages - połączenia|
|glucose - glukoza||glycaemic - glikemiczny|
|fructose - fruktoza||unripe - niedojrzały|
|galactose - galaktoza||lignin - lignina|
|starch - skrobia||soluble - rozpuszczalny|
|particles - cząstki||insoluble - nierozpuszczalny|
|sucrose - sacharoza||ingestion - spożywanie, przyjmowanie pokarmu|
|maltose - maltoza||bind - łączyć, wiązać|
|oligosaccharides - oligosacharydy||bile acid - kwas żółciowy|
|raffinose - rafinoza||edible - jadalny|
|stachyose - stachioza||maize - kukurydza|
|verbascose - werbaskoza||bran - otręby|
|to digest - trawić||swell - spuchnąć|
|inulin - inulina||peristalsis - perystaltyka|
Choose the appropriate answer to the following questions. There is only one possible answer.
- What are the compounds observed after lactose hydrolyzation?
- two molecules of glucose
- glucose and galactose
- two molecules of galactose
- Consumption of which of the following products will result in the largest glycaemic response?
- unripe bananas
- cooked potatoes
- What is inulin?
- a prebiotic stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria in the colon
- an insoluble fiber swelling in the colon
- a hormone controlling the glycaemia
The following collocations were taken from 'digestion, absorption + macronutrients' module. Match them to make correct expressions.
bond time glands out vessel lipase
cell muscle moistening products
membrane diffussion stream juice
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